Recent Question

Discussion of the individual assignment
Enterprise Architecture Applications
Lecturer: Peter Bernus
• Conduct independent research into one of the following topics:
– What is Service Oriented Architecture [e.g. shared services on business level] or a Service Oriented IT Architecture, and how could EA practice be used to implement it?
– What is Process Improvement practice (e.g., Six Sigma) and how could EA practice help implement it? (You may want to extend this topic to Process Management in general)
– What is Information Architecture and how does EA practice implement it?
… Or negotiate with the lecturer a different relevant topic
• The assignment should take the form of a ‘white paper’ and demonstrate
– The problem and its solution (either in the wider industry context, or in a particular organisation, if you have relevant work experience)
– The scope of the involved change (business / management, technical, organisational), including the role of EA practice to solve the selected problem
What is a White Paper?
“A white paper is an authoritative report or guide that oPen addresses problems and how to solve them
White papers are used to educate readers and help people make decisions. They are used in politics and business. They can also be a government report outlining policy”
Source: Wikipedia (retrieved 2013)
Suggested structure of your white paper
(2,000~2,500 words, plus a few figures)
1. Introduction
– Explain what is the business problem (issue) to be solved
– You can Quote a definition from a source, but you must explain it in more detail in your own words
– Long text ( 10% of your assignment) copied from the Internet is not acceptable even if you quote it
– If you did not draw a figure yourself then acknowledge the source
2. Exposure of the idea
Describe clearly, and in a language appropriate for a
management audience:
– what ‘X’ is (Xti Process Improvement / Information Architecture / SOA /...)
– how is it expected to solve the business problem
– Ensure that the presentation is up-­-to-­-date
You may want to use illustrative figures for the explanation
3. Introducing the Change (effect on the enterprise)
Detail the business management and architectural (technical and organisational) aspects of introducing ‘X’
Your audience is higher level management, so in order to address their concerns, you should provide full detail on the identification and concept level, and ‘just enough’ detail on the requirements and architectural design level.
You can do this by describing why, when (under what circumstances), who, where and how would go about applying ‘X’ ? (see next slides)
– Why
Describe the strategic objective that motivates the enterprise to introduce ‘X’ (this is normally a reference to the business problem already exposed in the Introduction but can be more detailed, especially if the white paper is wriden for a particular organisation, then the organisation-­-specific strategic motivation can be exposed here)
– When (under what circumstances) would this approach (‘X’) be suitable?
Explain the conditions that make the company ready for such change (‘readiness for change’ / ‘maturity’)
– Who would be responsible for initiating the necessary change?
• where would you typically find the person in the organisation who could take the role of the Champion (the person who identifies the problem and makes the first proposal)?
• where would you typically find the person in the organisation who could take the role of the Sponsor (the person who can secure funding for the change to be actioned)?
– Scope of change: where (in which part of the organisation) would the change happen, and what would change?
For each change, briefly discuss feasibility [e.g. refer to technologies that are available or becoming available, impact on the human organisation, such as skills, knowledge, ahtudes,… ], cost, and risk.
Some examples: (i) “this change effects the design of the company’s operational databases, the way the changes are approved and therefore changes technical and management processes both at the Headquarters level and in the organisation’s IT governance,” etc. (describe the impact of the change)
(ii) “it will be necessary to introduce new common architectural design principles shared by all enterprise entities”, or introduce a new reference model for the management of project entities, or create a new project or programme overseen by EA governance, or change the way EA governance is exercised, … etc.
(iii) “this change has an effect on organisation-­-wide (or departmental) policies and procedures, and the necessary competencies of people in the effected areas” (describe the impact of the change)
– How will the problem be approached organisationally?
by creating a programme?
A Programme is like an organisational unit, which would have a
Programme Office that has a yearly budget and have the responsibility to implement the change over a longer period of time, and which office initiates as well as provides governance for a number of change projects under it [should there be any other participants in addition to permanent programme office personnel?]
– What would be the mandate (the task) of this Programme?
– Who would participate in the management of the Programme?
– What would be the critical success factors of the Programme
– What would be the stages of development (e.g. would there be a need for a feasibility study project, needs assessment project, pilot project, incremental implementation projects)?
– What typical projects would have to be performed as time progresses (how much time do you estimate these will take)? … or by creating a change project?
– What would be the mandate (the task) of this project?
– What would be the critical success factors of the project?
– Who would participate in this project (project team?, ~ + delegates from business units / which ones? ~ + external consultants / service provides / vendors?)
Would this programme (or project) be run independently, or as part of the organisation’s EA Programme Office, or…? [in other words what would be the governance relationship to EA governance?]
Who would be responsible for identifying, (re)defining the policies, principles, mission, vision, of the organisational entities that need to change?
Are there other necessary related / anticipated organisational changes in the business units or other business entities? (if yes what are these?)
4. Conclusion
• The suggested structure for this white paper is based on the typical Enterprise Architecture approach
• You can (but do not have to) illustrate the white paper using a dynamic business model diagram. (However, you can use a dynamic business model to organise your own thoughts to ensure that everything that is relevant is addressed in your paper.)
The End